An ox (plural oxen) is a bovine animal trained as a draft animal. Oxen are often adult, castrated males, but cows or bulls may also be used in some areas. Oxen are used for plowing, transport (drawing carts or wagons or sometimes for riding), threshing grain by trampling, and for powering machines for grinding grain, irrigation or other purposes. Oxen may be used to skid logs in forests, particularly in low-impact select-cut logging. Oxen are usually used in pairs, one pair for light work such as carting, with further pairs being added for heavier work – some teams might exceed twenty animals when used for logging or moving other heavy loads over difficult ground.


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